# The Capacity of Capacitors

Hey there everyone! Welcome back again. This is my 3rd blog and this is the continuation of past my past blog because it is connected to each other. And the lesson for today is all about Capacitors. Now sit back, relax and explore the things i knew before the class discussion, the lessons i learned, how i acquired this lesson, and lastly my reflection. Take your time and enjoy reading my blog till the end! Electricity has become an important part of our lives. It is a form of energy that runs computers, appliances, and radios. It also lights our homes, schools, and office buildings. Without it, our world would be a much different place. In fact, before electricity was discovered, people mainly used fire to cook, to provide light and heat.

## WHAT I KNEW

From the previous years. We already discussed about the different types of electrical circuits: Series and Parallel Circuit. And the things that remained in my mind about these 2 are: in Series Circuit, when there’s one light bulb not working, the rest will not work anymore. While in Parallel Circuit, if there’s one light bulb not working, the rest will still be working. Also Capacitor and Inductors are already introduced to us. Both are energy storage devices which store energy, and also serve several functions in electrical and electronic circuits. Capacitor opposes change in voltage, while Inductor opposes change in current.

## WHAT I LEARNED

### What is an Electronic Circuit?

An electronic circuit is a complete course of conductors through which current can travel. Circuits provide a path for current to flow. To be a circuit, this path must start and end at the same point. In other words, a circuit must form a loop. An electronic circuit and an electrical circuit has the same definition, but electronic circuits tend to be low voltage circuits.For example, a simple circuit may include two components: a battery and a lamp. The circuit allows current to flow from the battery to the lamp, through the lamp, then back to the battery. Thus, the circuit forms a complete loop. Of course, circuits can be more complex. However, all circuits can be distilled down to three basic elements:

• Voltage source: A voltage source causes current to flow like a battery, for instance.
• Load: The load consumes power; it represents the actual work done by the circuit. Without the load, there’s not much point in having a circuit.
The load can be as simple as a single light bulb. In complex circuits, the load is a combination of components, such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, and so on.
• Conductive path: The conductive path provides a route through which current flows. This route begins at the voltage source, travels through the load, and then returns to the voltage source. This path must form a loop from the negative side of the voltage source to the positive side of the voltage source.

The following paragraphs describe a few additional interesting points to keep in mind as you ponder the nature of basic circuits:

• When a circuit is complete and forms a loop that allows current to flow, the circuit is called a closed circuit. If any part of the circuit is disconnected or disrupted so that a loop is not formed, current cannot flow. In that case, the circuit is called an open circuit. • Short circuit refers to a circuit that does not have a load. For example, if the lamp is connected to the circuit but a direct connection is present between the battery’s negative terminal and its positive terminal, too. Current flows everywhere it can. If your circuit has two pathways through which current can flow, the current doesn’t choose one over the other; it chooses both. However, not all paths are equal, so current doesn’t flow equally through all paths.For example, current will flow much more easily through the short circuit than it will through the lamp. Thus, the lamp will not glow because nearly all of the current will bypass the lamp in favor of the easier route through the short circuit. Even so, a small amount of current will flow through the lamp.

### 2 Types of Electrical Circuit

#### 1. SERIES CIRCUIT

A series circuit has only one path for electricity to flow from one point to another. The amount of electricity in the circuit is consistent throughout any component in the circuit. When electricity flows through a series circuit, its rate of flow (speed) will never fluctuate. The total resistance of a series circuit equals the sum of individual resistances. The more resistors that a series circuit has, the more difficult it is for electrons to flow. #### 2. PARALLEL CIRCUIT

A parallel circuit has multiple paths for electricity to flow from one point to another. According to website All About Circuits, “all components are connected between the same set of electrically common points.” Often, resistors and sources will be connected between two sets of electrically common points. In a parallel circuit, electricity can flow in multiple directions horizontally and vertically. The components of a parallel circuit will have the same voltage across their ends and will have identical polarities. ### Specialized Circuit

• SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUIT

Properties of both series and parallel circuits can be combined to form a specialized series-parallel circuit, in which the wires or components are configured such that there are only two loops through which electricity can flow. Like series circuits, the electricity has a path to which it must adhere. Like parallel circuits, the circuit still has two sets of electrically common points. ### Most Important and Basic Electronic Components

The three most important and basic electronic components are the resistor, capacitor, and inductor. They each play an important role in how an electronic circuit behaves. They also have their own standard symbols and units of measurement.

• RESISTORS

#### A resistor represents a given amount of resistance in a circuit. Resistance is a measure of how the flow of electric current is opposed or “resisted.” It is defined by Ohm’s law which says the resistance equals the voltage divided by the current. Resistance = voltage/current or R = V/IResistance is measured in Ohms. The Ohm is often represented by the omega symbol: Ω. The symbol for resistance is a zigzag line as shown below. The letter “R” is used in equations. • CAPACITORS A capacitor represents the amount of capacitance in a circuit. The capacitance is the ability of a component to store an electrical charge. You can think of it as the “capacity” to store a charge. The capacitance is defined by the equation C = q/V where q is the charge in coulombs and V is the voltage.In a DC circuit, a capacitor becomes an open circuit blocking any DC current from passing the capacitor. Only AC current will pass through a capacitor. Capacitance is measured in Farads. The symbol for capacitance is two parallel lines. Sometimes one of the lines is curved as shown below. The letter “C” is used in equations. • INDUCTORS An inductor represents the amount of inductance in a circuit. The inductance is the ability of a component to generate electromotive force due to a change in the flow of current. A simple inductor is made by looping a wire into a coil. Inductors are used in electronic circuits to reduce or oppose the change in electric current. In a DC circuit, an inductor looks like a wire. It has no affect when the current is constant. Inductance only has an effect when the current is changing as in an AC circuit. Inductance is measured in Henrys. The symbol for inductance is a series of coils as shown below. The letter “L” is used in equations. #### INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT RESISTORS, CAPACITORS, AND INDUCTORS

• The resistance of a material is the opposite or the inverse of the conductivity.
• The Ohm is named after German physicist George Ohm.
• The Henry is named after American scientist Joseph Henry.
• Combinations of capacitors, inductors, and resistors are used to build passive filters that will only allow electronic signals of certain frequencies to pass through.

### Other Basic Electronic Components

• LED

A Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a component that can give light. We use LEDs to give a visual feedback from our circuit. • #### TRANSISTOR

A transistor is a device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. Transistors consist of three layers of a semiconductor material, each capable of carrying a current. • Integrated Circuit

An integrated circuit, or IC, is small chip that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory. An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors. ## HOW I LEARNED

I wouldn’t be able to share with you the learning I have known  if not because of these ways which helped me a lot to understand the topics:

• Our parol making made me see the actual connections. And how capacitors, resistors and inductors looks like. • Not only the parol making but also listening to our physics teacher so that i can understand more about capacitors.
• And lastly, taking down notes because it is pretty helpful for me so that i can have a reminder.

## REFLECTION

So this time I learned how electricity works and what materials are being used to control it  like the electronic circuit having three most important things. Why? In electronic circuit, there are the most important and basic electronic components — the capacitor, inductor and resistor in order for it to work. They each play an vital role in how an electronic circuit behaves. Just like us, we have the most important things in life which are air, water and food. We need these 3 important things in life in order for us to do all the things given to us. And each of these play an important role in our lives. We need air to breathe because the air we breathe has oxygen. We need water because every human needs water to survive. We need food because it does many jobs for our body and gives us energy in order to for us to work.

## REFERENCES

What is Electronic Circuit?

https://www.dummies.com/programming/electronics/components/what-is-an-electronic-circuit/

What are the Two Types of Electrical Circuit?

https://sciencing.com/two-types-electrical-circuits-8246628.html

Physics for Kids – Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors

https://www.ducksters.com/science/physics/resistors_capacitors_and_inductors.phpBasic

Electronic Components Used in Circuits

https://www.build-electronic-circuits.com/basic-electronic-components/

Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors

http://science4fun.info/resistors-capacitors-and-inductors/

What is Transistor?

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/transistor

What is Integrated Circuit?

https://techterms.com/definition/integratedcircuit